The Apgar Score

The Apgar score

The Apgar scoring system is a comprehensive screening tool to evaluate a newborn’s condition at birth. The Apgar score has been used worldwide as an index of early neonatal condition for more than 60 years. Newborn infants are evaluated based on five variables: heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color. The Apgar […]

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Glucose screening and tolerance tests during pregnancy

Glucose Tolerance Tests

Common Use of glucose screening and tolerance tests during pregnancy: To evaluate blood glucose levels to assist in diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). ACOG recommends, all pregnant patients should be screened for GDM, whether by the patient’s medical history, clinical risk factors, or laboratory screening test results to determine blood glucose levels. A glucose screening test is a routine test […]

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2016 American Thyroid Association Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis

2016 American Thyroid Association Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis.

Thyrotoxicosis has multiple etiologies, manifestations, and potential therapies. Appropriate treatment requires an accurate diagnosis and is influenced by coexisting medical conditions and patient preference. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) previously cosponsored guidelines for the management of thyrotoxicosis that were published in 2011. Considerable new literature has been published since then, and the ATA felt updated […]

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Antepartum Fetal Surveillance: Clinical Considerations and Recommendations

Antepartum Fetal Surveillance: Clinical Considerations and Recommendations

The primary goal of antenatal testing is to identify fetuses at risk for intrauterine injury or death, so that these adverse outcomes can be prevented. Since the development of technologies for electronic fetal heart rate monitoring in the 1970s, and with increasing sophistication of ultrasound and Doppler imaging, an array of techniques for antenatal assessment […]

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Antepartum Fetal Surveillance: The Techniques

Antepartum Fetal Surveillance: The Techniques

The overarching goal of childbirth education is to have a healthy birth. Antenatal fetal surveillance is a field of increasing importance in modern obstetrics, especially as results in perinatal care have recently made dramatic progress. The goal of antepartum fetal surveillance is to prevent fetal death. Antepartum fetal surveillance techniques based on assessment of fetal […]

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Evaluation of Uterine Fibroids in Women With Otherwise Unexplained Infertility

Evaluation of Uterine Fibroids in Women With Otherwise Unexplained Infertility

An Overview   Uterine fibroids, myomas, or leiomyomata are the most common benign gynaecologic tumour in women of reproductive age. They are the cause for some of the most common gynecological problems among women presenting to gynecology emergency and outpatient departments. They are monoclonal tumours of the uterine smooth muscle cells and consist of large […]

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Delivery of an Impacted Fetal Head during Cesarean Section

Delivery of an Impacted Fetal Head during Cesarean Section

Cesarean section is commonly perceived as a simple and safe alternative to difficult vaginal birth. However, several trends in obstetrical practice may act in concert to cause impaction of the fetal head during the second stage of labor or, more commonly, following failed instrumental delivery. Subsequently, difficult and potentially traumatic disengagement of the deeply wedged […]

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Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Screening and Diagnosis

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Screening and Diagnosis

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition in women who have carbohydrate intolerance with onset or recognition during pregnancy. With the increase in obesity and sedentary lifestyle, the prevalence of DM among reproductive-aged women is increasing globally. In view of the increasing prevalence of GDM and fetal and neonatal complications associated with it, there is […]

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