Thromboembolism in Pregnancy – Recommendations

Thromboembolism in pregnancy - Recommendations

The adaptation of the maternal hemostatic system to pregnancy predisposes women to an increased risk of thromboembolism. In the developing world, the leading cause of maternal death is hemorrhage; however, in developed nations, where hemorrhage is more often successfully treated and prevented, thromboembolic disease is one of the leading causes of death. The prevalence and […]

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Update on Immunization and Pregnancy: Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccination

Update on Immunization and Pregnancy: Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccination

Brief Overview: The overwhelming majority of morbidity and mortality attributable to pertussis infection occurs in infants who are 3 months and younger. Infants do not begin their own vaccine series against pertussis until approximately 2 months of age. This leaves a window of significant vulnerability for newborns, many of whom contract serious pertussis infections from […]

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Amniotic Fluid: Technical Update on Physiology and Measurement

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Amniotic fluid provides a supportive and protective environment for fetal development during pregnancy. Amniotic fluid assessment by ultrasound has become an integral part of fetal assessment in modern obstetrics. Abnormalities of fluid volume result in obstetrical intervention and further investigations. Owing to the frequent use of bedside ultrasound, much is known about the regulation of and […]

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Role of Exogenous Gonadotropins in Ovulation Induction

Role of Exogenous Gonadotropins in Ovulation Induction

Exogenous Gonadotropins: Gonadotropins are used to treat infertility in anovulatory women, usually after other less complicated and costly methods have failed. They are also used to help women with Hypogonadotropic amenorrhea (HA) to treat infertility as there is inadequate amounts of endogenous circulating follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in such patients. Additionally, gonadotropins are used to induce […]

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The Apgar Score

The Apgar score

The Apgar scoring system is a comprehensive screening tool to evaluate a newborn’s condition at birth. The Apgar score has been used worldwide as an index of early neonatal condition for more than 60 years. Newborn infants are evaluated based on five variables: heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color. The Apgar […]

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Glucose screening and tolerance tests during pregnancy

Glucose Tolerance Tests

Common Use of glucose screening and tolerance tests during pregnancy: To evaluate blood glucose levels to assist in diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). ACOG recommends, all pregnant patients should be screened for GDM, whether by the patient’s medical history, clinical risk factors, or laboratory screening test results to determine blood glucose levels. A glucose screening test is a routine test […]

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2016 American Thyroid Association Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis

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Thyrotoxicosis has multiple etiologies, manifestations, and potential therapies. Appropriate treatment requires an accurate diagnosis and is influenced by coexisting medical conditions and patient preference. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) previously cosponsored guidelines for the management of thyrotoxicosis that were published in 2011. Considerable new literature has been published since then, and the ATA felt updated […]

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