Update on Immunization and Pregnancy: Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccination

Update on Immunization and Pregnancy: Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccination

Brief Overview: The overwhelming majority of morbidity and mortality attributable to pertussis infection occurs in infants who are 3 months and younger. Infants do not begin their own vaccine series against pertussis until approximately 2 months of age. This leaves a window of significant vulnerability for newborns, many of whom contract serious pertussis infections from […]

Continue reading


Amniotic Fluid: Technical Update on Physiology and Measurement

About Sodium !

Amniotic fluid provides a supportive and protective environment for fetal development during pregnancy. Amniotic fluid assessment by ultrasound has become an integral part of fetal assessment in modern obstetrics. Abnormalities of fluid volume result in obstetrical intervention and further investigations. Owing to the frequent use of bedside ultrasound, much is known about the regulation of and […]

Continue reading


Antepartum Fetal Surveillance: Clinical Considerations and Recommendations

Antepartum Fetal Surveillance: Clinical Considerations and Recommendations

The primary goal of antenatal testing is to identify fetuses at risk for intrauterine injury or death, so that these adverse outcomes can be prevented. Since the development of technologies for electronic fetal heart rate monitoring in the 1970s, and with increasing sophistication of ultrasound and Doppler imaging, an array of techniques for antenatal assessment […]

Continue reading


Antepartum Fetal Surveillance: The Techniques

Antepartum Fetal Surveillance: The Techniques

The overarching goal of childbirth education is to have a healthy birth. Antenatal fetal surveillance is a field of increasing importance in modern obstetrics, especially as results in perinatal care have recently made dramatic progress. The goal of antepartum fetal surveillance is to prevent fetal death. Antepartum fetal surveillance techniques based on assessment of fetal […]

Continue reading


Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Screening and Diagnosis

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Screening and Diagnosis

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition in women who have carbohydrate intolerance with onset or recognition during pregnancy. With the increase in obesity and sedentary lifestyle, the prevalence of DM among reproductive-aged women is increasing globally. In view of the increasing prevalence of GDM and fetal and neonatal complications associated with it, there is […]

Continue reading


Vitamin D during Pregnancy

Vitamin D during Pregnancy

Vitamin D: An Overview Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin obtained largely from consuming fortified milk or juice, fish oils, and dietary supplements. In the United States staple foods like milk, breakfast cereals and margarines are artificially fortified with vitamin D. At present, the number and variety of vitamin D fortified foods available on the […]

Continue reading


Screening for Perinatal Depression

Screening for Perinatal Depression

Depression is the leading cause of disease‐related disability among women. In particular, women of childbearing age are at high risk for major depression. Pregnancy and new motherhood may increase the risk of depressive episodes. Depression during the perinatal period can have devastating consequences, not only for the women experiencing it but also for the women’s […]

Continue reading


Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy: Clinical Considerations and Recommendations

Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy: Clinical Considerations and Recommendations

Over the past many years there has been a rapid expansion of knowledge regarding thyroid disease and pregnancy. These advances relate to the optimal management of pregnant women on levothyroxine therapy, the impact of iodine deficiency on the mother and developing fetus, the adverse effect of maternal hypothyroidism on mental development in their infants, the […]

Continue reading