Role of Exogenous Gonadotropins in Ovulation Induction

Role of Exogenous Gonadotropins in Ovulation Induction

Exogenous Gonadotropins: Gonadotropins are used to treat infertility in anovulatory women, usually after other less complicated and costly methods have failed. They are also used to help women with Hypogonadotropic amenorrhea (HA) to treat infertility as there is inadequate amounts of endogenous circulating follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in such patients. Additionally, gonadotropins are used to induce […]

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Antepartum Fetal Surveillance: Clinical Considerations and Recommendations

Antepartum Fetal Surveillance: Clinical Considerations and Recommendations

The primary goal of antenatal testing is to identify fetuses at risk for intrauterine injury or death, so that these adverse outcomes can be prevented. Since the development of technologies for electronic fetal heart rate monitoring in the 1970s, and with increasing sophistication of ultrasound and Doppler imaging, an array of techniques for antenatal assessment […]

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Antepartum Fetal Surveillance: The Techniques

Antepartum Fetal Surveillance: The Techniques

The overarching goal of childbirth education is to have a healthy birth. Antenatal fetal surveillance is a field of increasing importance in modern obstetrics, especially as results in perinatal care have recently made dramatic progress. The goal of antepartum fetal surveillance is to prevent fetal death. Antepartum fetal surveillance techniques based on assessment of fetal […]

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Delivery of an Impacted Fetal Head during Cesarean Section

Delivery of an Impacted Fetal Head during Cesarean Section

Cesarean section is commonly perceived as a simple and safe alternative to difficult vaginal birth. However, several trends in obstetrical practice may act in concert to cause impaction of the fetal head during the second stage of labor or, more commonly, following failed instrumental delivery. Subsequently, difficult and potentially traumatic disengagement of the deeply wedged […]

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Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Screening and Diagnosis

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Screening and Diagnosis

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition in women who have carbohydrate intolerance with onset or recognition during pregnancy. With the increase in obesity and sedentary lifestyle, the prevalence of DM among reproductive-aged women is increasing globally. In view of the increasing prevalence of GDM and fetal and neonatal complications associated with it, there is […]

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Management of Uterine Fibroids in Women With Otherwise Unexplained Infertility

Management of Uterine Fibroids in Women With Otherwise Unexplained Infertility

An Overview: Fibroids are present in approximately 5-10% of the patients presenting with infertility; however, they are found to be the sole identified factor in only 1-2.4% of the infertile patients. Women presenting with both fibroids and a history of otherwise unexplained infertility represent a challenge. These women may or may not be symptomatic from […]

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Nonobstetric Surgery During Pregnancy

Nonobstetric Surgery During Pregnancy

An Overview The need for anesthesia and surgery during pregnancy occurs in 1.5% to 2.0% of all pregnancies. The operations include those directly related to pregnancy (e.g., cerclage), those indirectly related to pregnancy (e.g., ovarian cystectomy), and those unrelated to gestation (e.g., appendectomy, cholecystectomy). The diagnosis of any medical condition requiring surgical intervention in pregnancy […]

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