Pattern of Congenital Anomalies at Birth

Authors: Anuja Bhalerao , Richa Garg


Congenital anomalies are a major cause of stillbirths and neonatal mortality. The pattern and preva-lence of congenital anomalies may vary over time or with geographical location.  The aim of this pa-per is to determine the pattern of congenital anomalies in newborns and to study maternal and peri-natal risk factors. This prospective case study was carried out in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of a rural tertiary Medical College and Hospital over 2 and half years. All the babies born in this hospital during this study period were included. The newborns were examined for the presence of congenital anomalies and mothers were interviewed for socio-demographic varia-bles. During the study period, 6076 babies were born, of which 84 had congenital malformations, making the prevalence 1.38%.  Congenital anomalies were seen more commonly in the multipara (2.57%)   in comparison with primipara (0.42%). The predominant system involved was musculo-skeletal system (36.90%) followed by central nervous system (25%), gastro-intestinal (GI) system (16.6%). Congenital anomalies were more likely to be associated with low birth weight, multiparity, maternal age (between 20 to 30 years) and consanguinity. The congenital anomalies affected signifi-cantly higher proportion of male babies (2.59%) than their female counterparts (0.75%).


Congenital anomaly, prematurity, prevalence, risk factors

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Pattern of Congenital Anomalies at Birth